The 5 Most Functional Programming Languages You Should To Learn in 2023

Inquire further about programs. Learning about functional programming and the languages that allow it is worthwhile.

You will have heard about functional programming if you spend even a little time researching programming trends online. The phrase is used rather frequently, but what does it actually mean?

The 5 Most Functional Programming Languages You Should To Learn in 2023

Even if you are familiar with functional programming, you might not be certain which languages work best for it. All programming languages are not created equal, after all. Although functional programming principles may be used with many different languages, there are still some where you'll feel much more at ease.

The 5 Most Functional Programming Languages You Should To Learn in 2023

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What Is Functional Programming Languages To Learn?

Functional programming is easier if you have a background in mathematics. This is so that computers may be treated like mathematical functions, according to the functional programming paradigm. This may be confusing to anyone without a background in mathematics.
Functional programming essentially considers data and functions as immutable. When you provide data into a function, it often returns altered versions of that data or another kind of data. The original data or program state should never be changed by a function in functional programming.
The idea that each program should perform one thing exceptionally well is comparable to the Unix philosophy. A function shouldn't interact with different program components. Instead, it ought to take your input and produce something for you.
In functional programming, pure functions should be used wherever feasible. This indicates that the result of the function will always be the same given the same input.

Functional vs. Object-Oriented Programming Languages To Learn?

Compared to anything like object-oriented programming, this is a significant divergence. In object-oriented programming, a basic object frequently has a number of methods for altering the data or state that are a part of it. If not mentioned explicitly, a method may even change the data or state.
This is appropriate in some applications. However, because it's not always obvious what is changing state or data, it can make programs more difficult to maintain. Functional programming was first applied in academic settings, but it may also aid in avoiding issues of this nature.

The 5 Most Functional Programming Languages You Should To Learn in 2023

1. JavaScript

The 5 Most Functional Programming Languages You Should To Learn in 2023

Functional programming is permitted in certain programming languages, while it is encouraged or even required in others. JavaScript belongs to the first group. The language supports functional programming paradigms, while object-oriented programming is also a viable option.
Nevertheless, JavaScript includes several functional programming principles. Consider higher-order functions as an illustration. These are functions that accept arguments from other functions.

2. Python

The 5 Most Functional Programming Languages You Should To Learn in 2023

Similar to JavaScript, Python is a general-purpose language that may be used with a wide range of programming paradigms. Functional programming is not one of Python's drawbacks, despite what some may think. Even a functional programming introduction may be found in the official Python manual.
and comparable features described above included. These are higher-order functions, just like in JavaScript, because they accept arguments from other functions. Functional programming in Python offers a benefit thanks to the keyword.
You can use lambda expressions in a few ways. One way to use it is as shorthand for simple functions. When assigned to a variable, you can call lambda expressions exactly as you would a standard Python function. The real advantage of lambda expressions comes when you use them as anonymous functions.
Anonymous functions work in JavaScript and other languages on this list as well. They come in especially handy when used with higher-order functions since you can define them on the spot. Without anonymous functions, you'd have to pre-define even simple additions as bespoke functions.

3. Clojure

The 5 Most Functional Programming Languages You Should To Learn in 2023

Even among programmers, Clojure might not be as well-known as JavaScript or Python. For those of you who are unfamiliar, Clojure is a dialect of the late 1950s-era computer language Lisp. This introduces a highly specialized method of operating that is ideal for functional programming.
Like other Lisp dialects, Clojure treats code as data. This implies that the code is capable of changing itself. Unlike other Lisp dialects, Clojure is compiled to JVM bytecode and operates on the Java platform. This implies that it is compatible with Java libraries, regardless of whether they were created in Clojure.
Contrary to the other languages on this list, Clojure was designed from the ground up to be a functional programming language. It therefore promotes immutability whenever it is possible, particularly in data structures.
Even though Clojure does not require that every program be mathematically "provable," it does promote the use of pure functions whenever possible.

4. Elm

The 5 Most Functional Programming Languages You Should To Learn in 2023

Elm, one of the more recent languages on our list, was created in 2012 by Evan Czaplicki as a fully functional language. Particularly for designing user interfaces, the language has become more and more popular among web developers.
Elm employs static type checking, in contrast to every other item on this list. This makes it possible to prevent runtime exceptions by catching mistakes at the time of compilation. Users will notice fewer mistakes as a result, which is a big positive.
HTML, CSS, and JavaScript are the main targets of the Elm compiler. Elm can be used to create apps that employ JavaScript libraries, much like Clojure can be used to create Java-based systems.

5. Haskell

The 5 Most Functional Programming Languages You Should To Learn in 2023

Another entirely functional, statically typed language is Haskell. Haskell has been around longer than Elm. The language's initial design dates back to 1990. Haskell 2010 is the most recent standard, and 2020 will see the release of the next one.
As we've just discussed, Haskell is fully functional, therefore functions shouldn't have side effects by design. This despite the fact that functional programming's beginnings are in academics makes it suitable for tackling challenges in the real world.
Haskell has been used in some significant projects despite not enjoying widespread popularity. Haskell is the only language used to create the Xmonad window manager. The language is also used by Pandoc, a program that translates different kinds of markup into and out of other formats.

Which Programming Language Should You Learn?

Gorton claims that while some programmers are able to make a living as experts in just one language, many programmers constantly pick up new languages. Professional programmers frequently speak three or four languages fluently, he continues.
One factor to take into account when choosing which programming languages to learn is the kind of software you want to create. While there are no set guidelines for what languages should be used to create what types of software, the following patterns can provide some direction:

  • Web-based startups are more likely to be programming in Python and JavaScript.
  • Larger companies tend to develop their internal software applications using C# or Java and their Web applications using PHP.
  • Programs for data analytics typically use the R and MATLAB programming languages.
  • Embedded devices, such as those in the automotive and healthcare industries, run software written in C, C++, or Rust.
  • Applications that run on the cloud are increasingly written in Go or Scala.  
  • Mobile applications are increasingly written in Swift or Kotlin.


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